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Extinct giant turtle had horned shell of up to three metres


The tropical region of South America is one of the world's hot spots when it comes to animal diversity. The region's extinct fauna is unique, as documented by fossils of giant rodents and crocodylians -including crocodiles, alligators, caimans and gavials - that inhabited what is today a desert area in Venezuela. Five to ten million years ago, this was a humid swampy region teeming with life. One of its inhabitants was Stupendemys geographicus, a turtle species first described in the mid-1970s.

Extinct giant turtle had horned shell of up to three metres
A graphic reconstruction of the giant turtle Stupendemys geographicus: male (front) and female
 individual (left) swimming in freshwater [Credit: Artwork: Jaime Chirinos]
Researchers of the University of Zurich (UZH) and fellow researchers from Colombia, Venezuela, and Brazil have now reported exceptional specimens of the extinct turtle recently found in new locations across Venezuela and Colombia.


"The carapace of some Stupendemys individuals reached almost three meters, making it one of the largest, if not the largest turtle that ever existed," says Marcelo Sanchez, director of the Paleontological Institute and Museum of UZH and head of the study. The turtle had an estimated body mass of 1,145 kg - almost one hundred times that of its closest living relative, the big-headed Amazon river turtle.

Extinct giant turtle had horned shell of up to three metres
Venezuelan Palaeontologist Rodolfo Sanchez and a male carapace of Stupendemys geographicus,
from Venezuela, found in 8 million years old deposits [Credit: Edwin Cadena]
In some individuals, the complete carapace showed a peculiar and unexpected feature: horns. "The two shell types indicate that two sexes of Stupendemys existed - males with horned shells, and females with hornless shells," concludes Sanchez. According to the paleobiologist, this is the first time that sexual dimorphism in the form of horned shells has been reported for any of the side-necked turtles, one of the two major groups of turtles world-wide.


Despite its tremendous size, the turtle had natural enemies. In many areas, the occurrence of Stupendemys coincides with Purussaurus, the largest caimans. This was most likely a predator of the giant turtle, given not only its size and dietary preferences, but also as inferred by bite marks and punctured bones in fossil carapaces of Stupendemys.

Extinct giant turtle had horned shell of up to three metres
Venezuelan Palaeontologist Rodolfo Sanchez and a male carapace of Stupendemys geographicus,
from Venezuela, found in 8 million years old deposits [Credit: Edwin Cadena]
Since the scientists also discovered jaws and other skeleton parts of Stupendemys, they were able to thoroughly revise the evolutionary relationships of this species within the turtle tree of life. "Based on studies of the turtle anatomy, we now know that some living turtles from the Amazon region are the closest living relatives," says Sanchez. Furthermore, the new discoveries and the investigation of existing fossils from Brazil, Colombia and Venezuela indicate a much wider geographic distribution of Stupendemys than previously assumed. The animal lived across the whole of the northern part of South America.

The discovery is published in Science Advances.

Source: University of Zurich [February 12, 2020]

TANN

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