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12th-century 'Viking drinking hall' found during Orkney dig


A large Norse hall has been discovered during excavations at Skaill Farmstead, on the island of Rousay, Orkney. The hall probably dates to the 10th to 12th centuries AD and was discovered below a more recent farmstead.

12th-century 'Viking drinking hall' found during Orkney dig
Skaill farmstead looking towards St Marys kirk and Midhowe Broch
[Credit: Bobby Friel]


A team of archaeologists from the University of the Highlands and Islands Archaeology Institute, Rousay residents and students have been digging at the site for a number of years, investigating the later stages of the farm complex and its middens (waste heaps), with a particular focus on past diet, farming and fishing practices.

12th-century 'Viking drinking hall' found during Orkney dig
Skaill overhead view of the trenches, Norse Hall on the left
[Credit: Bobby Friel]
Project co-director Dr Ingrid Mainland said “We have recovered a millenia of middens which will allow us an unparalleled opportunity to look at changing dietary traditions, farming and fishing practices from the Norse period up until the 19th century.”

12th-century 'Viking drinking hall' found during Orkney dig
Skaill Norse Hall below present farmstead
[Credit: UHI Archaeology Institute]


The exciting find this summer, was that walls extending from below the extensive settlement mound have been confirmed as a large Norse building, which is likely to be the hall. Substantial 1m wide stone walls were found 5.5m apart with internal features such as stone benches along either side.

12th-century 'Viking drinking hall' found during Orkney dig
Skaill Norse Hall showing the northern outer wall
[Credit: UHI Archaeology Institute]
The building appears to be in excess of 13m long. The hall is oriented down the slope towards the sea. Finds have included steatite (soap stone from Shetland), pottery and a bone spindle whorl. A fragment of a Norse bone comb was also found.

12th-century 'Viking drinking hall' found during Orkney dig
Skaill Norse Hall exposing more of the northern wall
[Credit: UHI Archaeology Institute]


Although only partly uncovered at this stage, the Skaill hall has parallels with other Norse halls excavated in Orkney, such as Snusgar, and elsewhere in Scotland. The find provides tantalising evidence for the earliest phases of habitation on this farm and settlement mound which may well have been inhabited for over 1000 years. It provides another piece to the 5000 year jigsaw along this archaeology rich stretch of coast at Westness on Rousay – the ‘Egypt of the north’.

12th-century 'Viking drinking hall' found during Orkney dig
Bone spindle whorl [Credit: UHI Archaeology Institute]
The excavation is part of the Landscapes of Change – Archaeologies of the Rousay Clearances and Westness Estate project. The aim of the project is to explore the farmstead at Skaill from the Norse period to its abandonment in the nineteenth century. The present farm at Skaill dates to the 18-19th centuries and was part of the Rousay clearances during the mid-19th century; however the name Skaill suggests the site was home to a Norse hall or drinking hall, and was a high status site.

12th-century 'Viking drinking hall' found during Orkney dig
Norse bone comb fragment from elsewhere on the site
[Credit: UHI Archaeology Institute]


Westness is mentioned in Orkneyinga saga as the home of Sigurd, a powerful chieftain, so it was always likely that a Norse settlement was located somewhere at Skaill. Earlier structures have been found below the present farm during previous seasons, and this season explored more of the Norse phases of the site.


Project co-director Dan Lee said “The exciting news this season is that we have now found the hall at Skaill, as the place name suggests. You never know, but perhaps Earl Sigurd himself sat on one of the stone benches inside the hall and drank a flagon of ale!”

Source: Archaeology Orkney [August 07, 2019]

TANN

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