Microorganisms in the subsurface seabed on evolutionary standby
Researchers at the Center for Geomicrobiology at Aarhus University, Denmark, have sequenced the genomes of several microorganisms inhabiting the subsurface seabed in Aarhus Bay. The results reveal the extreme evolutionary regime controlling microbial life in the deep biosphere.
|Sediment cores up to 10 m long can be collected from the seabed in Aarhus Bay by gravity coring. The mud |
in the deepest sections of such cores was deposited 10,000 years ago by the end of the last glaciation
[Credit: Nils Risgaard-Petersen]
Microbial evolution is arrested in the subsurface seabed as cells are buried in under a continuously growing layer of deposited mud and their genetic material therefore remains unchanged during the millennia.
"This means that these buried microorganisms presumably have a very low adaptability, unlike the microbial life that otherwise surrounds us in our environment" says Kasper U. Kjeldsen, associate professor at the Center for Geomicrobiology, who participated in the research project.
|A sediment core is subsectioned on deck of the Aarhus University Research Vessel Aurora |
[Credit: Bo Barker Jorgensen]
The microorganisms in the deep seabed live in an environment, which is extremely poor in food. Put simply, they chew on a lunch box, which has fed their ancestors for thousands of years, and the availability of energy is therefore minimal.
The microbial species we find in the deep seabed, are the same as those who lived at the seafloor for thousands of years ago. Unlike the majority of the members of surface community, these microorganisms survive burial deeper and deeper in to the subsurface.
It remains a mystery why these microorganisms have an inherent ability to grow under the extreme conditions that occur in the deep seabed.
The researchers hope that the new findings could ultimately help us to understand and reconstruct past environmental and climatic conditions based on analysis of the microbial species composition in deep marine sediment cores.
The discovery, which has changed our understanding of microbial life in the soil deep biosphere, was recently published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
Source: Aarhus University [March 20, 2017]