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'The Luwian Civilization' has appeared

A scientific publication, book and comprehensive website made public today by scientists at the Luwian Studies foundation in Zurich, Switzerland, advance and add weight to the view that Aegean prehistory (3000-1200 BCE) suffers from a pro-European bias.

'The Luwian Civilization' has appeared
Asia Minor and the Eastern Mediterranean 
[Credit: Luwian Studies]
The people who established Aegean prehistory as a discipline aimed to steer research interest towards Greece. As a consequence, they disregarded cultures on Anatolian soil. Despite the fact that Troy, the most important stratified archaeological site in the world, is situated in Anatolia.

On their foundation's website, researchers at Luwian Studies have today published a comprehensive database of Middle and Late Bronze Age archaeological sites in western Turkey. This unique catalog is the result of several years of literature research and field visits.

It currently covers over 340 expansive settlements, including their coordinates and aerial photographs. Geographic information systems have placed the settlements into context with rivers, lakes, mineral deposits, trade routes, flood plains and farmland to provide quantifiable data on the relationship between humans and the landscape.

The number, size, and wealth of artifacts of Bronze Age sites in western Turkey shows that this region was covered by a network of settlements and petty states throughout the 2nd millennium BCE. The names of these petty states are well known from documents of that time. If these states had formed an alliance, it would probably have surpassed the Mycenaean or Hittite realms in terms of political, economic, and military power.

Since western Asia Minor possessed its own writing system since 2000 BCE, it is justifiable to speak of a civilization in its own right. Many of the people in western Asia Minor spoke Luwian, a language in the Anatolian branch of the Indo-European language family. For this reason, the newly recognized civilization is called "Luwian."

More information:

Source: PR Newswire [May 12, 2016]

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  1. From the beginning I want to make it crystal clear that I'm Greek and as PhilHellenic or "Pro-Greek" as any Turk is Pro-Turkish, any German is "Pro-German" or any Swiss is "Pro-Swiss". Dr. Eberhard Zangger himself is "Pro - Dr. Eberhard Zangger and his theory's supporters" or at least "Pro-Luwian" (biased), if not even ... "Pro-Turkish". However, as a modern Greek, who's deeply in love with his nations' heritage, I have every right and it's my duty to keep my eyes widely opened, be aware of any possible malicious attack against it, regardless if just an indirect one, and defend it, despite any "academic" pretensions of those who would contribute to it. I'm aware that many readers of my comment will label me allegedly "unjustifiable defensive", "against scientific research or progress", "sight-limited" or "ignorant", but I'll still continue to write about what I intended to, which is that I have a feeling that all this "ancient Luwian civilization" mirage, which would allegedly be "another long-forgotten Anatolian one rising from shadows", "newly emerging (in the field of history research)" etc, as it was recently presented by the media covering the "Luwian studies" independent, private, non-profit foundation based in Switzerland claims, is suspect of being endorsed and insidiously endorsing itself some Pro-Turkish propaganda. In support of what will be labelled by many as a harsh claim (I just made), I'll present my (4 main) arguments, by referring to those presented in this video , while making the remark that they must be taken into consideration together, because each one, just by itself, cannot be sufficiently conclusive:

    1. Videos on this YT channel, aside of having an English audio (presentations made in the English language), they're also re-uploaded with subtitles in the Turkish language, and there's a description of the channel's thematic or goals in the Turkish language, in its "About" section ...
    2. Constant references to alleged emphatic "Pro-Greek" bias of the western / European scientists / historians during their research and in their writings, after the conquest of Costantinople / Istanbul by Turks and especially during and after the 19th century AD revolutions of the south-eastern Europe / Balkanic peoples against the Ottoman (Turkish) empire's yoke they endured for half millennium, may indicate a "Pro-Turkish" approach / bias and not necessary a wish for a return to what's implied to have allegedly been the old / authentic one; after all, those praised (in the video) Luwians ("ancient Turks"?) lived on the territory of what's nowadays western Turkey ...

  2. 3. The "Luwian civilization" is firstly portrayed as allegedly NEVER experiencing a "demise", unlike the Mycenaean (Greek), Minoan or Hittite ones, although later it's mentioned that it DID experience one, 500 years later than the other three enumerated civilisations. While the claim was clearly made as a reference to the ancient times, that aspect was more likely emphasized to imply a certain superiority of the "Luwian civilization" over the others, if not even a sort of notable descent of the modern Turkish culture / people from the ancient Luwian one(s) ... Now, remember that, even though there was a dark age of ancient Greece, Greek culture and Greek people still exist today. Do the Luwian ones, too? ...
    4. The "great achievements or importance" of the "Luwian civilization" are indirectly implied by an exaggerated and emotional-like presentation, that's by the use of some affirmations / arguments which cannot directly support those attributes: "the Luwian civilization wasn't systematically studied yet", "there are more Luwian archaeological sites already discovered, than there are some Mycenaean (Greek) ones", "the Luwian realm expanded more than the Mycenaean one did", "the Luwian hieroglyphic script was discovered earlier than the Mycenaean one was and it was continuously in use for an almost four times longer historical period than the second (the Greeks have lost their knowledge of writing completely)" [... Am I writing now? ...], "the Luwians produced and traded metals, horses, timber (hard to produce, hard to trade, needed a superior knowledge to do it), while (compared to that) the Mycenaeans produced (just) pottery" ... Now, Greeks might've "lost" and, later, "adopted" or "changed" their writing system (discussable claim), but they NEVER lost or changed their LANGUAGE, since it was first archaeologically attested. And this is an important proof of real , since one of the "Luwian studies" foundation's arguments in support of the existence of a "Luwian civilization" is that all those petty states in western Anatolia were all "Luwian" because of the common Luwian language their people spoke.

    Finally, I'll put some rhetorical questions: Does the "Luwian studies" foundation imply, against the overwhelming evidence, that the seed of the later (western) European civilization, including our modern one, wouldn't have originated in the ancient Greek civilization, regardless if Mycenaean or the later classical era, but somehow in the Luwian one, which would've been superior? Or, does the "Luwian studies" foundation even claim that the ancient Greek culture itself would've been "fabricated" and would've actually been just an adoption by the Greeks of the Luwian one? It seems that "Yes" is the answer, though not heard, but indirectly understood, since, besides of all the claims in this video about the "Luwian civilization", Martin Bernal's "Black Athena" book (graphically short-circuited), is presented as one of the "Anatolistic" plausible "scientific alternative" (or bias ...).

  3. Just 6 points to stress:

    1. Luwians were Indo-Europeans... not Turks

    2. They were never lost or their influence underestimated either in archaeological or linguistic studies pertaining to the Aegean Bronze Age...

    3. Luwian was initially believed to have been the underlying language of Linear A (ie., Minoan Crete)... see L.R.Palmer for example...

    4. whether Luwians also occupied the Troad is anybody's guess... An early 1960's study by the Greek archaeologist Mylonas ( even postulated a Luwian invasion of Greece during the Early Bronze Age....

    5. By the end of the Hellenistic period Lycians, Carians and Lydians (the historical remnants of the Luwians) were pretty much assimilated by Greek culture...

    6. Nothing else really original in these claims!



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